History of volleyball
Hint: Perhaps not even “William G. Morgan” who founded volleyball 121 years ago has ever thought his invented sport would be once such universal to be called the most attractive sport of Olympic or to be among the top five sport of the world as one of the big five international sports, and the FIVB, with its 220 affiliated national federations is the largest international sports federation in the world in charge of half billion volleyball players worldwide. What the originator could not imagine has taken place and it is now such popular that not only includes Olympic Games but also the prestigious events of World Championship, World Cup, World League, World Grand Prix, Grand Champions Cup, Junior & Youth Championship that the policy makers devised them all to satisfy the fever of volleyball fans. What FIVB tries to do such as volleyball your way, volleyball with height limit, volleyball for age groups from the basics to the juniors are all indicative of the interest of the world society to this sport.
Within two decades ago, the advent of beach volleyball that is recreational though competitive made it possible to attract some other fans. Beach Volley is now one of the most profitable sport with the stunning success of the FIVB World Tour which has opened up volleyball to a completely new market.
The History of Volleyball in the World
Volleyball has come a long way from the dusty-old YMCA gymnasium of Holyoke, Massachusetts, USA, where the visionary William G. Morgan as the director of physical education has gone down in history as the inventor of the game of volleyball, to which he originally gave the name “Mintonette” back in 1895 (1274 in solar).
Since Morgan met his friends, James Naismith who, in 1891, had invented basketball synthesized basketball and tennis to lay the foundation for a recreational and modern sport. Describing his first experiments he said, “In search of an appropriate game, tennis occurred to me, but this required rackets, balls, a net and other equipment, so it was eliminated, but the idea of a net seemed a good one. We raised it to a height of about 6 feet, 6 inches (1.98 metres) from the ground, just above the head of an average man. We needed a ball and among those we tried was a basketball bladder, but this was too light and too slow. We therefore tried the basketball itself, which was too big and too heavy.” His invention spread from one college to another and moved city to city. It took just one year to make it popular in the majority of American States. In 1986, one year after G. Morgan publicized volleyball, the international committee of the college invited him to elaborate on his invented sport before the professors in a conference. The conference was hold at the sport hall of the college where he divided some students into two groups and explicated his viewpoints while they were busy playing. After seeing the demonstration, and hearing the explanation of Morgan, Professor Alfred T. Halstead called attention to the action, or the act phase, of the ball’s flight, and proposed that the name “Mintonette” be replaced by “Volley Ball.” This name was accepted by Morgan.
Although volleyball used to be a sport practiced indoors and at the gyms, it later began to be played outdoors and became a summer sports played in parks and at the beaches by people.
The Timeline of Volleyball Rules
At the beginning, there were no rules maintained for volleyball, but gradually the need for framework and regulations was felt in order to ease the practice of it for the public. Thus,
• In 1900, it was arranged that each set of volleyball be 21 points.
• In 1912, the arrangement or composing system was decided
• In 1917, the rule of 15 points for each set was approved.
• In 1918, it was decided to play with 6 players.
• In 1921, it was decided to throw the ball in the other side of the net by 3 hits at the most.
• In 1923, it was arranged that the court size be 18 x 9.
There were many more rules decided later on volleyball and a lot of changes occurred with previous rules that are still continued. In fact, one of the obligations of the international volleyball congress which is held every four years is to provide the volleyball with new changes in rules and regulations in order to update, develop and make it more attractive. For example, in 1998 the congress approved the rule of 25 points for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th sets and 15 points for the 5th set. They also let the players use their foot and have a libro which made volleyball more and more attractive and exciting.
On the Way of Globalization
Canada was the first foreign country to practice volleyball in the world in 1900. After that volleyball spread through India, Cuba, Porto Rico, Philippine, Uruguay, China and Japan. It was actually introduced to the European countries such as France, Czech Slovakia, Poland, Soviet Union, Bulgaria and many other more countries by American military advisors in 1914. But it was the Asian countries who established the first volleyball organization and started to hold cups in the name of Far East in 1913. On the other hand, France, Czech Slovakia and Poland were the first countries who established volleyball federation in their countries. They become determined to establish the FIVB with other countries of the world. They made a lot of efforts at the time of Berlin Olympic (1936) which were all in vain due to the World War II.
After the world war and after a game between France and Czech in Paris, the discussions of establishing an international institutions for volleyball revived.
The Establishment of the FIVB
The meetings and talks between Poland, Czech Slovakia and France finally resulted in a congress in 1947 in Paris, in order to establish an international organization with the participation of the representative of 14 countries of Belgium, Brazil, Czech Slovakia, Egypt, France, Holland, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Uruguay, USA and Yugoslavia in which they agreed on setting up the FIVB and voting to Paul Libaud from France as the first president of it.
In next years, there were floods of requests from different countries to join the FIVB. And now after 60 years, FIVB is enjoying 220 members from countries all over the world. Paul Libaud made the FIVB one of the most active world sport federations and helped volleyball to be one of the most widespread sports in the world by setting up technical committees and approving new rules during his presidency at the FIVB for 37 years (till 1984) and planed international competitions as well.
The first World Men’s volleyball championship was held in Prague in 1952 and the second one together with the World Women’s volleyball championship was held in Moscow in 1952.
Volleyball in Olympic
It didn’t take long that the officials of the Olympic announced volleyball as one of the Olympic sports due to its early expansion into the world. Volleyball became an Olympic sport from the Tokyo Olympic in 1964 both for Men and Women. It is now for 11 times that volleyball is one of the Olympic sports and it is being welcomed more and more every year. According to the statistics, volleyball had the most number of TV viewers around the world in Athens and Beijing Olympics in 2004 and 2008 (over one and a half billion people around the world).
Dr. Robin Augusta, former oil minister of Mexico, became the president of the FIVB in a meeting by the international volleyball Congress in Los Angeles in 1984. There was a new soul blown into volleyball after him. His experiences and familiarity with economics and the capital absorbing policies made him strengthen the financial bases. On the other hand, he established the fundamentals of modern volleyball by consulting with the elites of volleyball all over the world. He moved the FIVB site from Paris to Lausanne in Switzerland and changed the structure of the FIVB into the form which is still the same right now.
Consequently, the volleyball policy makers approved to hold world volleyball tournaments annually, leaving fans from waiting four years to watch the world cup. To make this come true, the world league competitions and world grand championship with million dollars awards were planned and are still practiced every year with a huge number of fans around the world.
The FIVB’s programs were not limited only to the volleyball in the period of Augusta’s presidency. The beach volleyball was also getting popular in different countries spontaneously. FIVB supported this branch of volleyball by holding world competition as well provided with rules and regulations. It became one of the Olympic sports from the Atlanta Olympic in 1996.
then withdrew from his position as the president of the FIVB in 2008 after 24 years and the congress yield the position to Mr. Ji Hong from China in the 31st meeting of the congress in Dubai. He was the former president of the AVC and the vice president of The FIVB and the chief of the Legal committee of the FIVB before. He was also a national player in the volleyball team of China.
New look; New president
As Mr. Hong chaired the presidency of the FIVB in 2008, he declared that he is an interim head who intends to prepare the position for a capable person to lead FIVB. It was said that because the members of the FIVB were surprised with the withdrawal of Dr. Augusta from the FIVB and could not manage to choose the best option for the presidential position, they decided to allocate the responsibilities to a trusted person like Mr. Ji Hong in order to buy some time to think about the plans and the future of the presidency at the FIVB in four years till 2012.
Finally, it was in 2012 and in the 33rd meeting of the congress that Dr. Ary Graca from Brazil became the new president of the FIVB.
Dr. Ary Graca was the president of the Brazil’s volleyball federation and also the president of the South American Confederation as well as the member of the FIVB headquarters who has a reputation of creativity and a manager with an attitude brought many changes and developments in the world volleyball. His plans in spreading the Brazilian volleyball style in the world after the corruption of the Soviet Union is well known to everyone. He also played a key role in development of the beach volleyball in the world. He is now as the number one volleyball manager of the world who is getting on the helm of FIVB with his bright attitudes, and various plans driving his goals to make volleyball the most popular sport of the world.
Brief History of Iran’s Volleyball
The History of Iran’s Volleyball dates back to 1920 when Mr. Mir Mahdi VARZANDEH, the great master of sport brought volleyball regulations to Iran. He began teaching it at the DARALMOALEMIN (house of sport teachers). At the first stage, volleyball did not have any special method; it was played in different shapes. Knowhow and tactics of volleyball as its rules did not follow any fundamental rule. Every player was playing it by his own private initiative which was mostly through punching the ball. In 1922, the use of translation of foreign magazines into Persian assisted in adopting those rules which were implemented in the other countries. From 1925, the enthusiasts garnered more attention to volleyball and in a short time many people were attracted to this sport. So that the training of volleyball started seriously and continually in three different spots. These three places were:
1. House of sport teachers (Daralmoalemin);
2. Shayesteh or Ejtemaeiyon club;
3. Sport club of Alborz College.
The last place comparing the two other places had more facilities. Thus, most of the youth were going there for practice. After some months of training, the first volleyball match in 1925 took place between two teams of House of Sport teachers and Shayesteh club, it created a lot of enjoyment. Since the match was new for the people, so their presence created high rivalry between both teams, it added a lot of excitement to the match. The match was an introduction for a increasing expansion of this new sport.
Volleyball gradually found its way into the schools and in a short period of time by graduated teachers from House of Sport Teachers get expansion in schools and cities round the country.
After Tehran, Esfahan was the second city that played a major role in the development of volleyball. The first match of the cities was done between two teams of Esfahan College and Alborz college of Tehran.
Supplying of ball specific for volleyball was one of difficult matters in those days; players mostly were using the ball of football for playing volleyball. Finally, the first ball of volleyball was made by a guy named Ghomshehei.
In 1935, club matches were held in Tehran. DARBAND club team got the champion title.
In this year, some friendly and encouraging matches were held among women teams of Tehran. The first championship in volleyball simultaneously along with other sport disciplines was held in 1939.
At the beginning of establishing sport federations in 1985, Volleyball and Basketball jointly had got a federation which lasted till year 1957. In that years, matches were held under such names of clubs championship, independent groups, elective groups, school sport, faculties of different cities and at last the country championship took place.
During the WWII (World War II), forces of Allies occupied Iran, sport contacts especially in volleyball was done with soldiers of these forces; it was a new way for familiarity with volleyball of the other countries. At that time, a friendly match was fixed between Iran and Russian Army team in Bandar Anzaly where Iran successfully concluded the match.
Translating a book into Persian regarding volleyball rules in 1954 by Dr. Seyed Ziaeddin SHADMAN was a valuable step taken. He was the president of the Volleyball and Basketball federation of that time. The translated book was edited by Mr. Kazem RAHBARI, the chief of Physical Education of schools in capital city, he was one of the distinguished referees in volleyball and he was also active in some other sport disciplines. His book provided a methodical shape for organizing volleyball matches.
By the end of 1957, volleyball found its independent federation and Mr. Amir Abbas AMIN was nominated as the first president.
It was then than membership in World Federation has been proposed and it came true one year after in 1959.
In 1958, for the first time national men’s team of PAKISTAN was invited to Tehran and had some friendly matches with national team, club teams and Army team. It was then that the national volleyball senior men’s of Iran composed a team for the first time.
Some months later, Iran’s national volleyball men’s team was dispatched to TOKYO for the Asian volleyball championship of 1958. The team had eight players: Kamal POORHASHEMI, Abdol Monem KAMAL, Mohammad Esmaeel ASHTARI, Mohammad SHARIFZADEH, Abbas TEHRANI, Mahmood ADL, Husseinali AMIRI and Siavash FAROKHI. Noteworthy to add that Mr. Feridoon SHARIFZADEH who was one of the great coaches of Volleyball, Basketball and Football accompanied them as the head coach. Formerly, he had played in Galatasaray of TURKEY. This was regarded as the first time volleyball team was involving in an important international volleyball event that could finally achieve the second place with glory and pride among the participating teams. So, the first silver medal of the Asian games was brought home to the volleyball sport of Iran.
After these championship, international activities of Iran volleyball started, some of the prominent ones were: Dispatching of Coaches and Referees to international courses, inviting men’s and women’s teams of other countries, participation of the national team of both gender in official international tournaments and championships such as Asian games, Asian championship, World Championship, World Student s’ championship, World Military games, World championship for deaf people, world Sitting championship, World Rail Road’s Championship, Presidential cups of TURKEY, Kazakhstan, and Sheikh Rashid of Emirates.
Local events such as championship of league with the name of PASARGAD cup were hold in1974, 1975 and 1976. Also FAJR international championships, super league, league number one were taking place from 1993 to 2006. All of them with significant importance caused a lot of result in the development and expansion of volleyball.
Volleyball after Islamic Revolution
During the first years of revolution and under the influence of Imposed War, successive changes were done in president level of volleyball federation; changes caused immense alteration in combination of board members. Plans and schedules of volleyball did not employ stable structure. The attempts were mostly made in Public Sports.
Step by step by finishing the Imposed War and organizing the programs and management in sport, the shape of tournaments has changed in terms quantity, quality, and administration. International contacts revived and volleyball has taken a new step toward a better start.
The international tournaments of FAJR – from 1985 to 1999 – is of valuable events in the history of volleyball which could not only accelerate the development of volleyball but provided the opportunity for the clubs and team-running in Iran. Thus, Super League and league number one have been founded in their novel way as it is common elsewhere in the world.
Of the other reason that Iran could gain great success in various world and Asian arenas in Youth, Junior, and Senior age groups is to inject the updated science of volleyball to the players by employing such great coaches as:
Park Ki Won
And now Raul Lozano
Membership in AVC by the Iranian representatives are of the other honors worth mentioning: Mr. Ghafar Derakhshandeh, Mr. Abdul-Azim Azizkhani, Mr. Mahmoud Afshardoust, Ms. Maryam Hessaby, and Dr. Ramin Tabatabaei, are respectively the members of tournament, Beach, coaches, press, and medical committees of AVC.
Dr. Mohammad Reza DAVARZANI, the present president of volleyball federation and a member of AVC board is also part of World League Department. He is the first Iranian who could ever get the most important and the highest position in Volleyball World. Mr. Davarzani is currently one of FIVB Executive Board.
The Names of Presidents of IRAN volleyball Federation is as:
1. Amir Abbas Amin :1957-1963
2. Kazem Rahbari: 1963-1967
3. Ali Akbar Mirfakhraei: 1967-1968
4. Kamal Khanli: 1968-1969
5. Fereidoun Farrokhnia: 1969-1972
6. Mehdi Khazaei: 1972-1974
7. Farhad Masoudi: 1974-1978
8. Manouchehr Shapouri: 1978-1979
9. Mahmoud Adl: 1979-1980
10. Gholamreza Jabbari: 1980-1981
11. Jaber Khalafzadeh: 1981-1982
12. Hossein Alirezaei Tehrani: 1982-1984
13. Gholamreza Jabbari: 1984-1987
14. Parviz Khaki: 1987-1990
15. Mohammad Reza Yazdani-Khorram: 1990-2006
16. Dr. Mohammad Reza Davarzani: 2006- up to now